Topographic map

Scale of the map = 1:50,000
Length in cm= 34.5cm
1cm = 50,000cm
.:. 34.5cm = x
x = 34.5 x 50,000
x = 1725,000 cm
x= 1.725km
Length = 1.725km

The distance as the crow flies between JUegang Dombi and Kwojji = 14cm
But the scale of the map = 1:50,000
Hence, the distance = 14 x 50,000
= 700,000 cm
= 7km



(i) Land
(ii) Water
(iii) Air

The direction of Apowa Manga settlement from Wuro-Manu is North while the direction of Apowa-Shangel hill from Wuro-Manu is North East


(i) Vegetation
(ii) Bridge
(iii) Settlements



Sedimentary rock is a type of rock that forms from the accumulation and solidification of sediments, which are particles and organic material that settle at the Earth’s surface. These sediments can include minerals, small rock fragments, organic remains (such as plant and animal debris), and chemical precipitates.

(i) Limestone
(ii) Sandstone
(iii) Shale
(iv) Chalk
(v) Coal

(i) Building Materials: Sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone are widely used as building materials. Limestone, for example, is a key component in the production of cement, which is essential for construction. Sandstone is often used as a durable and aesthetically pleasing building stone.
(ii) Natural Resources Exploration: Sedimentary rocks are the primary host for oil and natural gas deposits. The porosity and permeability of certain sedimentary rocks, especially sandstone and limestone, make them ideal reservoirs for hydrocarbons. The exploration and extraction of these fossil fuels are critical for meeting global energy demands and drive significant economic activity in the energy sector.
(iii) Mineral Resources: Sedimentary rocks may contain economically valuable minerals. For example, sedimentary rocks like phosphorite, which is rich in phosphates, are essential for fertilizer production.

Igneous rocks are formed as a result of hot molten magma escaping to earth surface and cooling. On reaching the surface, the rocks cool to form glassy o.r coarsely crystalline textured mass. Some of the magma may cool before reaching the earth surface thus forming plutonic rocks while some may reach the surface to form volcanic rocks. Rapid cooling gives rise to fine grained rocks, while slow cooling gives raise to larger grained rocks.


(i) Tropical Climate (Group A)
(ii) Dry Climates (Group B)
(iii) Temperate Climate (Group C)

Köppen’s climate classification is based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation patterns.

(i) Tropical Rainforest (Af) within the Tropical Climate (Group A).
(ii) Desert (BWh, BSh) within the Dry Climate (Group B).

(i) Tropical Rainforest (Af): This sub-climate is characterized by high and relatively constant temperatures throughout the year, with abundant rainfall, often exceeding 60 inches (1500 mm) annually. It is typically associated with lush, evergreen forests and high biodiversity.

(ii) Desert (BWh, BSh): Deserts have extremely low annual precipitation, often less than 10 inches (250 mm), and are known for their arid conditions, with high temperatures during the day and cooler temperatures at night. Vegetation in deserts is typically adapted to arid conditions, with xerophytic plants like cacti and succulents.

(i) Köppen’s classification uses quantitative data such as temperature and precipitation, making it more objective and precise compared to the qualitative Greek system.

(ii) Köppen’s system can be applied to various regions and climates around the world, whereas the Greek system was originally designed for the Mediterranean region.

(iii) Köppen’s system considers multiple climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, and vegetation, providing a more comprehensive view of climate conditions.

(iv) Köppen’s system includes a wider range of climate types, allowing for a more detailed and nuanced classification of climates compared to the Greek system, which had limited categories.



A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. It combines hardware, software, and data to collect, organize, and analyze information linked to specific locations on the Earth’s surface. GIS allows users to visualize, interpret, and understand spatial relationships and patterns in data.

(i) Government Agencies
(ii) Satellite imagery
(iii) Aerial photography
(iv) GPS data
(v) Survey data
(vi) Hard copy maps

Global Positioning System (GPS): This is a satellite-based navigation system that provides accurate positioning and timing information. It uses a network of satellites to determine the precise location of a GPS receiver.

Attributes: Attributes in GIS refer to the non-spatial information or characteristics associated with spatial data. These attributes can include data such as names, addresses, population, temperature, etc.

Map layers: Map layers in GIS are different sets of spatial data that are stacked on top of each other to create a composite map. Each layer represents a specific theme or type of information, such as roads, buildings, or vegetation.

Georeferencing: This is the process of aligning spatial data to a known coordinate system or reference system. It allows different datasets to be integrated and analyzed together accurately.

Map navigation: Map navigation in GIS refers to the ability to move, zoom in, zoom out, and explore a map digitally. It allows users to interact with the map and view different areas of interest.

Digitizing: Digitizing in GIS is the process of converting analog or paper-based maps or data into digital formats. It involves manually tracing or capturing the spatial features and attributes from a physical map or document into a digital format.


(i) Data Integration: Remote Sensing involves capturing information about the Earth’s surface from a distance, usually using satellites or aerial sensors. This data, which includes imagery and spectral information, serves as valuable input for GIS. GIS provides a platform for organizing, managing, and analyzing spatial data. Remote sensing data, when integrated into GIS, can be analyzed alongside other geographic datasets

(ii) Spatial Analysis and Modeling: Remote sensing provides a way to observe and monitor changes in the Earth’s surface over time. This information, when integrated into GIS, allows for in-depth spatial analysis. GIS is a powerful tool for spatial decision-making. By combining remote sensing data with GIS, decision-makers can gain insights into spatial patterns, identify trends, and make informed decisions about land use planning, resource management, and environmental conservation.

(iii) Visualization and Communication: Remote sensing imagery enhances the visual representation of geographic data in GIS. High-resolution satellite or aerial imagery can serve as a backdrop for maps, aiding in the interpretation of spatial relationships. GIS platforms enable users to overlay and juxtapose remote sensing data with other thematic layers, improving the overall visualization of spatial information.

(i) Urban and Regional Planning
(ii) Environmental management and conservation
(iii) Transportation and logistics
(iv) Natural resource management and agriculture
(v) Emergency response and disaster management

(i) Hardware: The hardware component of GIS refers to the physical equipment used to support GIS operations. This includes computers, servers, storage devices, GPS receivers, and other hardware components.

(ii) Software: GIS software includes tools for data creation, editing, analysis, and map production. Examples of GIS software include ArcGIS, QGIS, and Google Earth.

(iii) Data: GIS relies on various types of data, including satellite imagery, maps, survey data, and demographic data. These datasets are used to create and analyze spatial information.

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